The base element that we are going to consider now is the thread. It is an independent execution context within the operating system process. It has its own software counter and local data. A thread is the smallest execution unit that can be scheduled. Most modern operating systems allow individual processes to group a set of threads into a logically related set which shares some properties and keeps specific attributes private.
A single stream is a certain sequence of calculations and is the simplest test situation. There are methods that cover different entry points and paths through a separate thread of computations. These methods correspond to different logical paths through the logic, including dynamic substitutions of one piece of the program code for other.
The main complications caused by having a multitude of threads arise when the threads share information or access data stores available to more than one thread. For concurrency to bring at least some benefit there should be as few dependencies between threads as possible. Dependencies mean that the order in which calculations in two specific threads occur possesses a value.
Since each thread is scheduled by the operating system independently of other threads, the developer must provide a special mechanism for synchronizing the threads so that the correct order is stuck to.
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Object-oriented programming languages provide natural synchronization means that hide attributes behind interfaces and, in some cases, get threads to correspond with objects. This means that synchronization becomes visible in the object’s interface (for instance, the synchronized keyword in Java) and that message exchange is the key element of synchronization.
In such an environment, class testing is not able to detect many, if any, synchronization failures. It is only when certain objects interact with each other that the real possibility of detecting synchronization defects occurs.The study of test cases, which has been used, was originally conceived sequentially, and the version of C ++ that can be downloaded from the Web is a serial version.